AES GCM slow

Matthew Hall mhall at mhcomputing.net
Mon Jan 27 09:17:15 PST 2014


I have often had good luck accelerating such operations using the PKCS #11 provider with a recent copy of libnss to get the native crypto. And the things needed for this are built into Java already.
-- 
Sent from my mobile device.

Michael StJohns <mstjohns at comcast.net> wrote:
>At 09:23 AM 1/27/2014, Mark Christiaens wrote:
>>Silly me, forgot to mention that I'm working on Ubuntu, 64 bit, 13.10.
>>
>>So, AES-CBC seems to be reasonably fast (100 MiB/s) but AES-GCM is
>slow (5.2 MiB/s). Â I'm particularly curious about the GCM one because
>I get the impression that OpenSSL should be able to reach in the GB/s
>for AES-GCM encryption/authentication. 
>>
>>Mark
>
>
>GCM uses a GF2 multiply as part of the integrity calculation.  That
>operation is pretty expensive.  My guess is that if the code was
>profiled, you'd find a lot of time being spent in
>com.sun.crypto.provider.GHASH.
>
>The more recent intel processors have a set of instructions that
>substantially improve this performance -
>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CLMUL_instruction_set - but the code in
>the standard provider is all pure java and doesn't take advantage of
>this as far as I can tell.  I believe that the more recent versions of
>OpenSSL *have* been updated to take advantage of the new instructions
>which explains their performance.
>
>The same processors generally also support an AES instruction set so if
>someone were to build a native version of this it might be useful to
>also replace/augment the default AES block cipher implementation.
>
>Also see
>http://software.intel.com/en-us/articles/intel-aes-ni-performance-testing-on-linuxjava-stack
>
>Mike
>
>
>
>>On Mon, Jan 27, 2014 at 3:19 PM, Xuelei Fan
><<mailto:xuelei.fan at oracle.com>xuelei.fan at oracle.com> wrote:
>>What's the platform are you using for the testing? Â Windows, Linux,
>>Solaris or Mac OS? Â GCM are now only implemented in SunJCE provider.
>Â I
>>want to make sure the crypto provider for AES-CBC, which is different
>>for different platforms by default, is not the major cause of the
>>performance impact.
>>
>>Thanks for the performance measure.
>>
>>Regards,
>>Xuelei
>>
>>On 1/27/2014 5:34 PM, Chris Hegarty wrote:
>>> Cross posting to security-dev, since the question cipher related.
>>>
>>> -Chris.
>>>
>>> On 27/01/14 09:28, Mark Christiaens wrote:
>>>> I wrote  a little test client/server setup that transfers 100 MB
>of data
>>>> over an SSL socket configured to use TLS 1.2 AES GCM
>>>> (TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256). Â On my i7-4770 CPU @
>3.40GHz
>>>> with OpenJDK 1.8.0-ea-b124 I get a transfer rate of around 5.2
>>>> MiB/second. Â I expected a higher speed. Â Using
>>>> TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256 I reach 100 MiB/s. Â Is
>this to
>>>> be expected?
>>>>
>>>> For reference, here is my code:
>>>>
>>>> ///// Client.java
>>>>
>>>> package ssl;
>>>>
>>>> import javax.net.ssl.*;
>>>> import java.io.*;
>>>> import java.util.Arrays;
>>>>
>>>> public class Client {
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â public static void main(String[] arstring) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â try {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â SSLSocketFactory sslsocketfactory =
>(SSLSocketFactory)
>>>> SSLSocketFactory.getDefault();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â SSLSocket sslsocket = (SSLSocket)
>>>> sslsocketfactory.createSocket("localhost", 9999);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â Helper.requireAESCipherSuites(sslsocket);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â sslsocket.setEnabledProtocols(new
>String[]{"TLSv1.2"});
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â try (OutputStream outputstream =
>>>> sslsocket.getOutputStream()) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â byte[] buf = new byte[Helper.BUF_SIZE];
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â Arrays.fill(buf, (byte) 1);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â for (int i = 0; i < Helper.BUF_COUNT;
>++i) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â outputstream.write(buf);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Using cipher suite: "
>+
>>>> (sslsocket.getSession()).getCipherSuite());
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â outputstream.flush();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â } catch (IOException exception) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â exception.printStackTrace();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>> Â  Â  Â }
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> ///// Server.java
>>>>
>>>> package ssl;
>>>>
>>>> import javax.net.ssl.*;
>>>> import java.io.*;
>>>>
>>>> public class Server {
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â public static void main(String[] arstring) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â try {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â SSLServerSocketFactory sslserversocketfactory =
>>>> (SSLServerSocketFactory) SSLServerSocketFactory.getDefault();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â SSLServerSocket sslserversocket =
>(SSLServerSocket)
>>>> sslserversocketfactory.createServerSocket(9999);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â SSLSocket sslsocket = (SSLSocket)
>sslserversocket.accept();
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â InputStream inputstream =
>sslsocket.getInputStream();
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â byte[] buf = new byte[Helper.BUF_SIZE];
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â long bytesToRead = BYTES_TO_READ;
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â while (bytesToRead > 0) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â bytesToRead -= inputstream.read(buf);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â long stopTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â long totalTimeMs = stopTime - startTime;
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â double mbRead = BYTES_TO_READ / (1024.0 *
>1024);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â double totalTimeSeconds = totalTimeMs / 1000.0;
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â double mibPerSecond = mbRead /
>totalTimeSeconds;
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Using cipher suite: " +
>>>> (sslsocket.getSession()).getCipherSuite());
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Read " + mbRead + "MiB in "
>+
>>>> totalTimeSeconds + "s");
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Bandwidth: " + mibPerSecond
>+ "MiB/s");
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â } catch (IOException exception) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â exception.printStackTrace();
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>> Â  Â  Â }
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â private static final int BYTES_TO_READ = Helper.BUF_COUNT *
>>>> Helper.BUF_SIZE;
>>>> }
>>>>
>>>> ///// Helper.java
>>>>
>>>> package ssl;
>>>>
>>>> import java.util.*;
>>>> import java.util.regex.*;
>>>> import javax.net.ssl.*;
>>>>
>>>> public class Helper {
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â static int BUF_SIZE = 1024 * 1024;
>>>> Â  Â  Â static int BUF_COUNT = 100;
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â static SSLSocket requireAESCipherSuites(SSLSocket socket) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â String supportedCipherSuites[] =
>>>> socket.getSupportedCipherSuites();
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Supported cipher suite: " +
>>>> Arrays.toString(supportedCipherSuites));
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â List<String> selectedCipherSuites = new
>ArrayList<>();
>>>>
>>>> // Â  Â  Â  Â String patternString = ".*";
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â String patternString =
>"TLS_ECDH_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_GCM_SHA256";
>>>> // Â  Â  Â  Â String patternString =
>>>> "TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA256";
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â Pattern pattern = Pattern.compile(patternString);
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â for (String cipherSuite : supportedCipherSuites) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â Matcher matcher = pattern.matcher(cipherSuite);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â if (matcher.find()) {
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â selectedCipherSuites.add(cipherSuite);
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â }
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â System.out.println("Selected cipher suites: " +
>>>> selectedCipherSuites);
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â
>socket.setEnabledCipherSuites(selectedCipherSuites.toArray(new
>>>> String[0]));
>>>>
>>>> Â  Â  Â  Â  Â return socket;
>>>> Â  Â  Â }
>>>> }
>>>>
>>
>>
>>
>>
>>-- 
>>Mark Christiaens
>>Ganzeplas 23
>>9880 Aalter
>>09 / 325 07 40 
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